Infertility and Smoking Connected? You Bet.






The effects of infertility and smoking are connected but are not generally appreciated. Smoking has a negative impact on the ability to become pregnant and carry a pregnancy to term.

Smoking and infertility are not a good combination, men who smoke are more likely to be impotent, women who smoke are more at risk of miscarriage and reduces IVF success plus it has implications for cervical cancer. Smoking also reduces the chances of conceiving by to 40% per cycle. So in short, infertility and smoking will have a huge effect on your chances of conceiving.

Studies on infertility and smoking.

Virtually all scientific studies conclude that smoking has an adverse impact on fertility. The prevalence of infertility and smoking is high among women, and the time it takes to conceive is longer, in smokers compared to non-smokers. Active smoking by either partner has adverse effects, and the impact of passive cigarette smoke exposure is only slightly smaller than for active smoking.

Research indicates that cigarette smoking is harmful to a woman’s ovaries, and the degree of harm is dependent upon the amount and the period of time a woman smokes. Smoking appears to accelerate the loss of eggs and reproductive function and may advance the time of menopause by several years.

There have been numerous studies on the impact between infertility and smoking and it is not good, if you a woman who smokes then about 13% of females who smoke will have sub-fertility. Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day will affect ability to conceive (fecundability). Females who smoke will be more at risk of spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal changes.

An epidemiologic analysis of more than 4,800 non-smoking women showed those who were exposed to second hand smoke six or more hours per day as children and adults faced a 68 percent greater chance of having difficulty getting pregnant and suffering one or more miscarriages. This study was published online in Tobacco Control and is one of the first studies to demonstrate the lasting effects of second hand smoke exposure on women during childbearing years.

Women, Infertility and Smoking.

In women fertility is compromised by cigarette smoke as this occurs as a result of toxic substances, which may cause harm to the ovaries. Smoking cigarettes also causes hormonal changes that can lead to menstrual irregularities and even annovulation (menstrual cycles where ovulation fails to occur). Even though the exact mechanism of how or why this occurs is still unknown, the harmful effects of cigarette smoke cannot be overlooked.

There is a significant association between smoking and reduced fertility among female smokers. 1-2

Women who smoke should be informed that this is likely to reduce their fertility and should be offered referral to a smoking cessation program to support their efforts in stopping smoking. For on-line help in quitting smoking and being smoke free

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It has been reported that passive smoking in women is associated with delayed conception.3

Components in cigarette smoke have been shown to interfere with the ability of cells in the ovary to make estrogen and to cause a woman’s eggs (oocytes) to be more prone to genetic abnormalities.

Overall, women should be informed that passive smoking is likely to affect their chance of conceiving, so they should not be in any environment where smoking is taking place.

Men, Infertility and Smoking.

Men who smoke should be informed that there is an association between infertility and smoking by reducing their semen quality (although the impact of this on male fertility is uncertain), and that stopping smoking will improve their general health and cardiovascular profile.

Men who smoke have been shown to have abnormalities in sperm production. Both sperm quality and quantity are affected by cigarette smoking. These abnormalities translate into higher rates of infertility.

There is an association in men between smoking and reduced semen parameters. 4, 5–10 however, the relationship between male smoking habits and fertility is uncertain.

Couples, infertility and smoking.

Couples should be informed that maternal and paternal smoking can adversely affect the

success rates of assisted reproduction procedures, including in-vitro fertilization treatment (IVF). We found no studies that investigated the effect of the use of nicotine replacement therapy on infertility.

There are significant associations between maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and increased risks of small-for-gestational-age infants, stillbirth and infant mortality. 11- 13

Male and female exposure in utero is associated with reduced fertility later on in life.14 This is backed up by Women exposed to second hand smoke, either as adults or children, were significantly more likely to face fertility problems and suffer miscarriages, revealed by researchers from University of Rochester Medical Center.

Recommendations for infertility and smoking.

Women who smoke should be informed that this is likely to reduce their fertility and should be offered referral to a smoking cessation program to support their efforts in stopping smoking.

Women should be informed that passive smoking is likely to affect their chance of conceiving.

For women with fertility problems, basic information about the impact of smoking on fertility or a scripted three- to five-minute intervention with booklets specific to the woman’s For women with fertility problems, basic information about the impact of smoking on fertility or a scripted three-to-five-minute intervention with booklets specific to the women's ‘stage-of- change’ smoking continuum, together with exhaled carbon monoxide monitoring, were highly effective in stopping smoking, but not in improving pregnancy rates.15

The best thing you can do overall is to stop smoking altogether, it can be hard and beating an addiction is not easy, but thousands of people are doing it everyday, if they are doing it so can you. One way of doing this if you have tried all the patches, gums, pills etc is the electronic cigarette to help you quit. Click here for everything you need to know about of assisted reproduction procedures, including in-vitro fertilization treatment (IVF).

We found no studies that investigated the effect of the use of nicotine replacement therapy on infertility.

There are significant associations between maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and increased risks of small-for-gestational-age infants, stillbirth and infant mortality. 11- 13

Male and female exposure in utero is associated with reduced fertility later on in life.14 This is backed up by Women exposed to second hand smoke, either as adults or children, were significantly more likely to face fertility problems and suffer miscarriages, revealed by researchers from University of Rochester Medical Center.

Recommendations for infertility and smoking.

Women who smoke should be informed that this is likely to reduce their fertility and should be offered referral to a smoking cessation program to support their efforts in stopping smoking.

Women should be informed that passive smoking is likely to affect their chance of conceiving.

For women with fertility problems, basic information about the impact of smoking on fertility or a scripted three- to five-minute intervention with booklets specific to the woman’s For women with fertility problems, basic information about the impact of smoking on fertility or a scripted three-to-five-minute intervention with booklets specific to the women's ‘stage-of- change’ smoking continuum, together with exhaled carbon monoxide monitoring, were highly effective in stopping smoking, but not in improving pregnancy rates.15

The best thing you can do overall is to stop smoking altogether, it can be hard and beating an addiction is not easy, but thousands of people are doing it everyday, if they are doing it so can you. One way of doing this if you have tried all the patches, gums, pills etc is the electronic cigarette to help you quit. Click here for everything you need to know about electronic cigarettes.

If you want to know about other causes on infertility and their impacts click infertility and smoking here.




References

1. Augood C, Duckitt K, Templeton AA. Smoking and female infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod 1998;Vol13:-1539.
2. Hughes EG, Brennan BG. Does cigarette smoking impair natural or assisted fecundity? Fertil Steril 1996;66:679–89.
3. Hull MG, North K, Taylor H, Farrow A, Ford WC. Delayed conception and active and passive smoking. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood Study Team. Fertil Steril 2000;74:725–33.
4. Marshburn PB, Sloan CS, Hammond MG. Semen quality and association with coffee drinking, cigarette smoking, and ethanol consumption. Fertil Steril 1989;52:162–5.
5. Vine MF, Margolin BH, Morrison HI, Hulka BS. Cigarette smoking and sperm density: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril 1994;61:35–43.
6. Merino G, Lira SC, Martinez-Chequer JC. Effects of cigarette smoking on semen characteristics of a population in Mexico. Arch Androl 1998;41:11–5.
7. Zhang JP, Meng QY, Wang Q, Zhang LJ, Mao YL, Sun ZX. Effect of smoking on semen quality of infertile men in Shandong, China. Asian J Androl 2000;2:143–6.
8. Trummer H, Habermann H, Haas J, Pummer K. The impact of cigarette smoking on human semen parameters and hormones. Hum Reprod 2002;17:1554–9.
9. Dunphy BC, Barratt CLR, von Tongelen BP, Cooke ID. Male cigarette smoking and fecundity in couples attending an infertility clinic. Andrologia 1991;23:223–5.
10. Kunzle R, Mueller MD, Hanggi W, Birkhauser MH, Drescher H, Bersinger NA. Semen quality of male smokers and nonsmokers in infertile couples. Fertil Steril 2003;79:287–91
11. Clausson B, Cnattingius S, Axelsson O. Preterm and term births of small for gestational age infants: a population-based study of risk factors among nulliparous women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998;105:1011–7.
12. Raymond EG, Cnattingius S, Kiely JL. Effects of maternal age, parity, and smoking on the risk of stillbirth. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1994;101:301–6.
13. Kleinman JC, Pierre MB Jr, Madans JH, Land GH, Schramm WF. The effects of maternal smoking on fetal and infant mortality. Am J Epidemiol 1988;127:274–82.
14. Jensen TK, Henriksen TB, Hjollund NH, Scheike T, Kolstad H, Giwercman A, et al. Adult and prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke as risk indicators of fertility among 430 Danish couples. Am J Epidemiol 1998;148:992–7.
15. Hughes EG, Lamont DA, Beecroft ML, Wilson DMC, Brennan BG, Rice SC. Randomized trial of a ‘stage-of-change’ oriented smoking cessation intervention in infertile and pregnant women. Fertil Steril 2000;74:498–503.